Before looking at the Younger Futhark, I’m going to share a couple of photos and links on the Elder Futhark. It consists of 24 runes, and it was in use roughly from the 2nd-8th century. You’ll find it on the gold bracteates, a few rune stones in Scandinavia, and on objects like weapons and jewelry for instance. Read more about it here.

This is what the runes look like – it’s a close-up from the Kylver rune stone from Gotland :

Here’s another wikipedia-link that will tell you more about that stone….

It was thanks to the Kylver stone and two bracteates that the runologists got the order of the runes correct. Here’s the Grumpan-bracteate :

The other bracteate was the Vadstena bracteate, that got stolen from the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities in 1938, and has never been seen since….