I’ll show you how I do, when I try to read the runes on a rune stone. I picked a beautifully carved one from the province of Östergötland in Sweden. It’s standing next to two other rune stones in Kårarp, which is situated about 20 kilometers west of Linköping.

The number of this stone is Ög 209. Many of the rune stones were raised by someone to commemorate a relative who had died. Then we have to look for names + the words “raised this stone after”.

Here’s “risti : stin : eftir” – notice that the dot on the “I” in the last word turns the “I” into an “E”. OK – That was “raised this stone after”. Then the word before this sequence ought to be a name, right ?

“Tusti” – that’s his name…. “raised stone after” – then there ought to be another name, right ? (or in this case two of them)

“Tuka : auk : Urusta” – “auk” is and, so there are two names. I’ve seen the name Tuka before, but never the other one….

The last words on the stone tell us what relationship Tuka had to the other ones : “nefa : sina” = his nephews.

So rune by rune the text is : : tusti : risti : stin : iftiR * tuka * auk * u÷rusta : nefa : sina :

Modernized it’s : Tosti reisti stein eptir Tóka ok Orrosta, nefa sína.

In English it’s : Tosti raised the stone in memory of Tóki and Orrosti, his nephews.